For TSMC, being the world's largest foundry with nearly 500 customers has its peculiarities. On the one hand, the company can serve almost any client with almost any requirements. On the other hand, it has to stay ahead of everyone else both in terms of capacity and in terms of technology. As far as capacity is concerned, TSMC is unchallenged and is not going to be for years to come. As for fabrication technologies, TSMC has recently reiterated that it's confident that its N2, N3, and N4 processes will be available on time and will be more advanced than competing nodes.


Early this year TSMC significantly boosted its 2021 CapEx budget to a $25 – $28 billion range, further increasing it to around $30 billion as a part of its three-year plan to spend $100 billion on manufacturing capacities and R&D.

About 80% of TSMC's $30 billion capital budget this year will be spent on expanding capacities for advanced technologies, such as 3nm, 4nm/5nm, and 6nm/7nm. Analysts from China Renaissance Securities believe that most of the money on advanced nodes will be used to expand TSMC's N5 capacity to 110,000 ~ 120,000 wafer starts per month (WSPM) by the end of the year. Meanwhile, TSMC said that 10% of its CapEx will be allocated for advanced packaging and mask making, whereas another 10% will be spent on specialty technologies (which includes tailored versions of mature nodes).

TMSC's the most recent CapEx hikes announcements were made after Intel announced its IDM 2.0 strategy (that involves in-house production, outsourcing, and foundry operations) and to a large degree reaffirms TMSC's confidence in both short-term and long-term future even ahead of intensified competition.

"As a leading pure-play foundry, TSMC has never been short on competition in our 30-plus-year history, yet we know how to compete," said C.C. Wei, president and CEO of TSMC, at a recent conference call with analysts and investors. "We will continue to focus on delivering technology leadership, manufacturing excellence, and earning our customers' trust. The last point, customers' trust, is fairly important because we do not have internal products that compete with customer."

Advertised PPA Improvements of New Process Technologies
Data announced during conference calls, events, press briefings and press releases
Power -60% <-40% -10% -15% -30% -10% lower -25-30%
Performance +30% ? +7% +10% +15% +5% higher +10-15%
Logic Area

Reduction %








? 0.58x


2018 2018
2019 Q2 2019
Q2 2020 2021 2022 H2 2022

N5 Gaining Customers

TSMC was the first company to start high volume manufacturing (HVM) of chips using its N5 (5 nm) process technology in mid-2020.

Initially, the node was used solely for TSMC's alpha customers — Apple and HiSilicon. Shipments to the latter ceased on September 14, which left all of the leading-edge capacity to Apple. By now, more customers are ready with their N5 designs, so the adoption of this node is growing. Meanwhile, TSMC says more customers are planning to use N5 family of technologies (including N5, N5P, and N4) than it expected just several months ago.

"N5 is already in its second year of volume production with yield better than our original plan," said Mr. Wei. N5 demand continues to be strong, driven by smartphone and HPC applications, and we expect N5 to contribute around 20% of our wafer revenue in 2021. […] In fact, we are seeing stronger engagement with more customers on 5 nm and 3 nm [versus 7 nm at similar stages]. The engagement is so strong that we have to really prepare the capacity for it."

For TSMC, HPC applications include many different types of products, including AI accelerators, CPUs, GPUs, FPGAs, NPUs, and video gaming SoCs, just to name a few. Since they're just a contract manufacturer, TSMC does not disclose what kinds of products it makes using one node or another (we do know that it builds the Apple A14 SoC for smartphones/tablets/STBs as well as the Apple M1 SoC for PCs and tablets), but the very fact that adoption of N5 is growing in the HPC segment is important.

"We expect demand for our N5 family to continue to grow in the next several years, driven by the robust demand for smartphone and HPC applications," the head of TSMC said. "We expect to see HPC, not only in the first wave, but in additional waves of demand to support our leading [N5] node in the future, actually."

It is not particularly surprising that TSMC's N5 is gaining market share among adopters of leading-edge technologies. Analysts from China Renaissance estimate that TSMC's N5 features a transistor density of around 170 million transistors per square millimeter (MTr/mm2), which if accurate, makes it the densest technology available today. By contrast, Samsung's Foundry's 5LPE can boast with about 125 MTr/mm2 ~130 MTr/mm2, whereas Intel's 10 nm features an approximately 100 MTr/mm2 density.

In the coming weeks TSMC is set to start making chips using a performance-enhanced version of its N5 technology called N5P that promises to increase frequencies by up to 5% or reduce power consumption by up to 10% (at the same complexity). The technology offers a seamless migration path for customers without requiring significant engineering resource investment or longer design cycle time, so anyone with an N5 design can use N5P instead. For example, early adopters of N5 could re-use their IP for their N5P chips.

N4: On Track for Next Year

TSMC's N5 family of technologies also includes evolutionary N4 process that will enter risk production later this year and will be used for mass production in 2022.

This technology is set to provide further PPA (power, performance, area) advantages over N5, but keep the same design rules, design infrastructure, SPICE simulation programs, and IPs. Meanwhile, since N4 further extends usage of EUV lithography tools, it also reduces mask counts, process steps, risks, and costs.

"N4 will leverage the strong foundation of N5 to further extend our 5 nm family," said Mr. Wei. "N4 is a straightforward migration from N5 with compatible design rules while providing further performance, power and density enhancement for the next wave of 5-nanometer products. N4 risk production is targeted for second half this year and volume production in 2022."

By the time N4 enters HVM in 2022, TSMC will have about two years of experience with N5 and three years of experience with EUV. So expectations are that yields will be high and the performance variability promises to be low.

But even as cutting-edge as N4 is slated to be, it's not going to be the most advanced fabrication technology that TSMC will offer next year.

N3: Due in H2 2022

In 2022, the world's largest contract maker of chips will roll out its brand-new N3 manufacturing process, which will keep using FinFET transistors, but is expected to offer the whole package of PPA improvements.

In particular, versus their current N5 process, TSMC's N3 promises to increase performance by 10% – 15% (at the same power and complexity) or reduce power consumption by 25% – 30% (at the same performance and complexity). All the while the new node will also improve transistor density by 1.1 ~ 1.7 times depending on the structures (1.1X for analog, 1.2X for SRAM, 1.7X for logic).

N3 will further increase the number of EUV layers, but will keep using DUV lithography. Also, since the technology keeps using FinFET, it will not require a new generation of electronic design automation (EDA) tools redesigned from scratch and development of all-new IPs, which might become a competitive advantage over Samsung Foundry's GAAFET/MBCFET-based 3GAE.

"N3 will be another full node stride from our N5 and will use FinFET transistor structure to deliver the best technology maturity, performance, and cost for our customers," said Mr. Wei. "Our N3 technology development is on track with good progress. We continue to see a much higher level of customer engagement for both HPC and smartphone applications at N3 as compared with N5 and N7."

In fact, TSMC's claims about growing customer engagement with N3 indirectly telegraphs its high expectations for N3.

"[N3] risk production is scheduled in 2021," said TSMC's CEO. "The volume production is targeted in second half of 2022. Our N3 technology will be the most advanced foundry technology in both PPA and transistor technology, when it is introduced. […] We are confident that both our [N5] and [N3] will be large and long-lasting nodes for TSMC."

Beyond N3

Gate-all-around FETs (GAAFETs) are still a part of TSMC's development roadmap. The company is expected to use a new kind of transistors with its 'post-N3' technology (presumably N2). In fact, the company is in path-finding mode for next generations of materials and transistor structures that will be used many years down the road.

"For advanced CMOS logic, TSMC’s 3nm and 2nm CMOS nodes are progressing nicely through the pipeline," the company said in its annual report recently. "In addition, TSMC's reinforced exploratory R&D work is focused on beyond-2nm node and on areas such as 3D transistors, new memory and low-R interconnect, which are on track to establish a solid foundation to feed into many technology platforms.

It is noteworthy that TSMC is expanding capacity for R&D operations at Fab 12, where N3, N2, and more advanced nodes are currently being researched and developed.


Overall, TSMC is confident that its "everyone's foundry" strategy will enable it grow further in terms of scale, market share, and sales. The company also expects to maintain its technology leadership going forward, which is pivotal for growth.

"For the full year of 2021, we now forecast […] foundry industry growth [at] about 16%," said Wendell Huang, CFO of TSMC, at a recent conference call with analysts and investors. "For TSMC, we are confident we can outperform the foundry revenue growth and grow by around 20% in 2021."

The company has a strong technology roadmap and it is set to continue introducing improved leading-edge nodes every year, thus offering its customers improvements at a predictable cadence.

TSMC knows how to compete against rivals with leading-edge nodes as well as makers of chips focused on specialty process technologies, so it does not see Intel Foundry Services (IFS) as an immediate threat especially because the blue giant is going primarily after leading-edge and advanced nodes.

Financial analysts generally share TSMC's optimism mainly because of the expectation that the company's N3 and N5 nodes are not going to have competitors offering similar transistor densities and wafer starts.

"Following Intel's announced foundry comeback in March, TSMC’s willingness to set a 3-year $100 billion CapEx/R&D investment plan, starting from 2021, indicates its confidence to widen its foundry leadership," Szeho Ng, an analyst with China Renaissance Securities. "We see TSMC’s strategic value rising with N3/N5: strong N5 tape-out activities from HPC/smartphone applications and more N3 client engagement vs N5/N7 at similar stages."

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  • Yojimbo - Monday, April 26, 2021 - link

    TSMC's 5nm and 3nm, although they call them full node advances, are more like between half and 3/4 nodes. Intel made one misstep, trying to bite off too much without EUV. So far all its manufacturing problems can be ultimately traced back to that. So we need to see what Intel can do with EUV - what will be the quality of its 7 nm process? - before declaring that TSMC has lapped Intel. Intel doubled its usage of EUV in its 7 nm process. It seems to have the pellicles it's been waiting for. We'll have a better idea in 2023 of where Intel stands.
  • Spunjji - Tuesday, April 27, 2021 - link

    Intel made a lot more than one misstep with 10nm. TSMC don't use EUV at all on N7, so if that were the only problem then TSMC ought to have had similar issues given their comparable densities in practice.
  • Yojimbo - Tuesday, April 27, 2021 - link

    That's a good point. I'm curious to see AMD's gross margins for this past quarter, which will be released this afternoon along with their earnings. Their Q4 2020 results showed no gross margin improvement over Q4 2019 despite a Y/Y revenue increase of 53% and an improved competitive landscape. This is very strange, and I assume has to do with the cost they are paying, and have been paying, for the 7 nm node. To me that implies that the 7 nm node is not all that great for high powered chips. But the foundry customers don't have a choice but to move to the newer node because TSMC's older nodes are stale. TSMC isn't developing them the way Intel chose to develop 14 nm. As for AMD, they still benefit greatly from picking up market share and having the same profitability as they would otherwise have with lower market share. Intel, on the other hand, which already has high market share, needs to maintain its margins and has a lot to lose financially by switching to a less profitable node that keeps them at 88% market share instead of 85%, or what have you. That's just the way the business and financials shake out for the two companies.

    The situation is a lot more nuanced than Intel's 10 nm is trash and TSMC's 7 nm is good. There are a lot of filters in play here. To me it's telling that NVIDIA chose Samsung's 8 nm for their gaming chips. They were able to leverage their architectural superiority to maintain their margins by avoiding TSMC's 7 nm node. We need to consider the total volume of high powered chips being produced on the 7 nm node and what their margins are compared to Intel's demand for high powered chips and what its margin requirements are. We don't have the information of how much more Intel could have charged for a 10 nm chip compared with how much more it would have cost to make. And we don't have the information of the HPC-only margin of TSMC's nodes. TSMC's gross margins are not extraordinarily high considering the capacity shortage, and they actually dropped qa bit in 2019 before the shortage began.
  • Matthias B V - Tuesday, April 27, 2021 - link

    Agreed. Intel will be back on track with EUV 7nm and catch up with 5nm GAA. Their 7nm DUV can compete with 7nm TSMC / SAMSUNG. And If the dats is correct Intels 7nm is closer to SAMSUNG 2nm / TSMC 3nm than to TSMC 5nm. SAMSUNG 5nm is totally off (Don't know what happened there. Probably because it is more of a 7nm LPU+ instead of a new design?). They might have focused on GAA and come back big...

    However I see one issue that Intel does not get enough EUV scanners from ASML and do not have enough capacity.

    TSMC is far ahead of Samsung and Intel in EUV orders and installed scanners. And now even Hynix and Micron will increase order so supply will be tight for years.

    I guess EUV capacity is one reason besides maturity of 7nm for Intel to bring a 10nm ESF (10nm+++) RaptorLake as AlderLake successor.
  • Tams80 - Wednesday, April 28, 2021 - link

    With ASML banned from exporting to China though (a situation looking likely to only get 'worse'), that should at least relieve some of the stress that the shortage of ASML EUV scanners has caused
  • Yojimbo - Friday, April 30, 2021 - link

    Chinese semiconductor manufacturers weren't yet ready to use EUV for production. They had bought 2 machines for development purposes. It's not that big of a difference. It's thought that SMIC's 16/14 nm still isn't that good at this point.
  • duploxxx - Tuesday, April 27, 2021 - link

    there are a lot of ways to calculate density.... believe whatever you want, one thing is for sure.
    10nm Intel is not as high volume as they want and certainly not high performance and 7nm is nowhere to find real soon.

    so perhaps read something about real sizes and differences comparing logic and make a good calculation from a good site:
  • TheinsanegamerN - Tuesday, April 27, 2021 - link

    Wow, that was really helpful and insightful.
  • Spunjji - Tuesday, April 27, 2021 - link

    Can we be sure about Intel's density projections for 7nm? We still don't know much for sure about their density at 10nm - the 100Mtr/mm^2 was their original projection, and it's abundantly clear that the process never met those initial expectations. In practice they seem to be closer to 70Mtr/mm^2.

    If 7nm is a full node over their *working* 10nm process then it would roughly match the density of TSMC's N5, which would be in keeping with Intel's historical advantage over TSMC at comparable node names (i.e. one full node ahead), but still leave them far behind TSMC's 3nm in practice.
  • Silver5urfer - Tuesday, April 27, 2021 - link

    Intel is not going to catch them, it's over. They lost the years long advantage they had be it Intel management problems or that stupid CA state demographics in all aspects etc.

    Intel is simply going to use/steal their IP and build Intel parts as per their latest disclosure, so far their 10nm Consumer processor is not out yet to show performance and granted the 7N and these marketing terms do not that great justice to the actual technology.

    All in all the end processors will show the real king, EPYC 7763 which is the one right now. I think we all have to simply wait and see what's going to happen.

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